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Jüri Uluots (13 January 1890-1945) was an Estonian prime minister, journalist, well-known lawyer, and distinguished Professor and Dean of the University of Tartu's Faculty of Law.
Uluots was born in Kirbla Parish (now Lääneranna Parish) in Estonia's Wiek County and studied law at St. Petersburg University in 1910-1918. He continued to teach Roman and Estonian law at the University of Tartu until 1944. Uluots was also an editor of the Kaja newspaper 1919–1920 and editor-in-chief of Postimees 1937–1938.
Uluots served in the Estonian parliament from 1920-1926 to 1932. He served as speaker of the Riigivolikogu (lower chamber) from 4 April 1938 to 1939. Uluots served as Prime Minister from 1939 to June 1940 when Soviet troops advanced Estonia and installed a new Soviet puppet government led by Johannes Vares, but Uluots' constitutional government went underground (and later, exile). The communist puppet government in Estonia was never recognized by the United States, United Kingdom, or other western powers who considered it illegally.
Professor Uluots became prime minister in the Estonian constitution after Estonian President Konstantin Päts was arrested by Soviet occupation forces and deported to Russia in July 1940. The communist government was deposed when the Nazis invaded Soviet-occupied Estonia in 1941. Ulouts refused German invitations to lead the Estonian Self-Administration in 1941 and instead became part of Estonia's underground resistance to the Nazi occupation regime.
The front was almost all the way to the former Estonian border in January 1944. Narva was evacuated. Jüri Uluots delivered a radio address urging all able-bodied men born 1904 to report for German military service (Before this, Uluots had rejected Estonian mobilization.) 38,000 draftees descended on German registration centers, earning praise from all around the world: the call received support from all around the world: 38,000 draftees appeared at German registration centers. Thousands of Estonians who had served in the Finnish army returned to Finland to join the newly established Territorial Defense Force, which was assigned to protect Estonia against the Soviet advance. Estonia was hoped that by participating in such a conflict, Estonia would be able to gain Western sympathy for Estonia's emergence from the USSR and, in the end, achieve independence.
The National Committee of the Republic of Estonia was established in March 1944 by the underground resistance movement in German-controlled Estonia. A substantial number of the committee members were arrested by the German security services by April 1944. When the Red Army had crossed the border of Estonia on February 2, 1944, the committee intended to establish a provisional government amid anticipated German withdrawal. The National Committee Electoral Committee of the Republic of Estonia was selected on April 20th, 1944. The commission found that Konstantin Päts' appointment of Johannes Vares as Prime Minister had been unlawful, and that Uluots had assumed President's responsibilities from 1940 to 1960. Jüri Uluots appointed Otto Tief as deputy prime minister on June 21, 1944.
Uluots appointed a new government led by Otto Tief as the Germans returned to Germany in September 1944. The Estonian national government was unveiled on September 20th. In Toompea, Estonian forces confiscated the government buildings and ordered the German forces to evacuate.
Before the Soviet army's arrival and went into hiding, Tief's government left Tallinn. However, the bulk of the cabinet members were later arrested and detained by the Soviet authorities, or were transferred to labour camps in Siberia. The majority of the government fled to Stockholm, Sweden, where it had been exile from 1944 to 1992, when Heinrich Mark, the prime minister in charge of the president, outlined his credentials to new President Lennart Meri.
Uluots died of gastric cancer shortly after arriving in Sweden in 1945.