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Sun Yat-sen (12 November 1866 – 12 March 1925) was a Chinese philosopher, physician, and politician, who served as the first president of the Republic of China and the first leader of the Kuomintang (Nationalist Party of China).
He is referred as the "Father of the Nation" in the Republic of China due to his instrumental role in the overthrow of the Qing dynasty during the Xinhai Revolution.
Sun is unique among 20th-century Chinese leaders for being widely revered in both mainland China and Taiwan.Sun is considered to be one of the greatest leaders of modern China, but his political life was one of constant struggle and frequent exile.
After the success of the revolution in which Han Chinese regained power after 268 years of living under the Manchu Qing dynasty, he quickly resigned as President of the newly founded Republic of China and relinquished it to Yuan Shikai.
He soon went to exile in Japan for safety but returned to found a revolutionary government in the South as a challenge to the warlords who controlled much of the nation.
In 1923, he invited representatives of the Communist International to Canton to re-organize his party and formed a brittle alliance with the Chinese Communist Party.
He did not live to see his party unify the country under his successor, Chiang Kai-shek in the Northern Expedition.
He died in Beijing of gallbladder cancer on 12 March 1925.Sun's chief legacy is his political philosophy known as the Three Principles of the People: nationalism (independence from foreign imperialist domination), "rights of the people" (sometimes translated as "democracy"), and the people's livelihood (sometimes translated as "socialism").
Sun Te-ming was born on 12 November 1866 to Sun Dacheng and Madame Yang. His birthplace was the village of Cuiheng, Xiangshan County (now Zhongshan City), Guangdong. He had a cultural background of Hakka and Cantonese. His father owned very little land and worked as a tailor in Macau, and as a journeyman and a porter. After finishing primary education, he moved to Honolulu in the Kingdom of Hawaii, where he lived a comfortable life of modest wealth supported by his elder brother Sun Mei.
At the age of 10, in Hawaii, Sun began seeking schooling, He obtained secondary schooling in Hawaii. and met his childhood friend Lu Haodong. By age 13 in 1878, after receiving a few years of local schooling, Sun went to live with his elder brother, Sun Mei (孫眉) in Honolulu. Sun Mei financed Sun Yat-sen's education and would later be a major contributor for the overthrow of the Manchus (Qing Dynasty).
During his stay in Honolulu, Sun Yat-sen went to ʻIolani School where he studied English, British history, mathematics, science, and Christianity. While he was originally unable to speak English, Sun Yat-sen quickly picked up the language and received a prize for academic achievement from King David Kalākaua before graduating in 1882. He then attended Oahu College (now known as Punahou School) for one semester. In 1883 he was sent home to China as his brother was becoming worried that Sun Yat-sen was beginning to embrace Christianity. As Hawaii was being annexed by the United States at the time, Sun obtained American citizenship.
When he returned to China in 1883 at age 17, Sun met up with his childhood friend Lu Haodong again at Beijidian (北極殿), a temple in Cuiheng Village. They saw many villagers worshipping the Beiji (literally North Pole) Emperor-God in the temple, and were dissatisfied with their ancient healing methods. They broke the statue, incurring the wrath of fellow villagers, and escaped to Hong Kong. After arriving in Hong Kong in November 1883, he studied at the Diocesan Home and Orphanage on Eastern Street (now the Diocesan Boys' School), and from 15 April 1884 to his graduation in 1886, he was at The Government Central School on Gough Street (now Queen's College).
In 1886 Sun studied medicine at the Guangzhou Boji Hospital under the Christian missionary John G. Kerr. According to his book "Kidnapped in London", Sun in 1887 heard of the opening of the Hong Kong College of Medicine for Chinese (the forerunner of The University of Hong Kong) and immediately decided to benefit from the "advantages it offered." Ultimately, he earned the license of Christian practice as a medical doctor from there in 1892. Notably, of his class of 12 students, Sun was one of only two who graduated.