Ernest Hollings


Ernest Hollings was born in Charleston, South Carolina, United States on January 1st, 1922 and is the Politician. At the age of 96, Ernest Hollings biography, profession, age, height, weight, eye color, hair color, build, measurements, education, career, dating/affair, family, news updates, and networth are available.

Date of Birth
January 1, 1922
United States
Place of Birth
Charleston, South Carolina, United States
Death Date
Apr 6, 2018 (age 96)
Zodiac Sign
Ernest Hollings Height, Weight, Eye Color and Hair Color

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Ernest Hollings Religion, Education, and Hobbies
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The Citadel (BS)University of South Carolina, Columbia (LLB)
Ernest Hollings Spouse(s), Children, Affair, Parents, and Family
Martha Salley ​ ​(m. 1946; div. 1971)​ Rita Liddy ​ ​(m. 1971; died 2012)​
Dating / Affair
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Ernest Hollings Life

Ernest Frederick "Fritz" Hollings (January 1, 1922-1922 – April 6, 2019) was an American politician who served as a Senator from South Carolina from 1966 to 2005.

He was also the Governor of South Carolina and South Carolina's 77th Lieutenant Governor.

He served with Democrat and Republican Senator Strom Thurmond for 36 years, making them the longest-serving Senate pair in history.

He was the first living former resident of the United States at the time of his death. Senator Bernie Sanders. Born in Charleston, South Carolina, Hollings graduated from The Citadel in 1942 and joined a law firm in Charleston after attending the University of South Carolina School of Law.

He served as an artillery officer in North Africa and Europe during World War II.

lânging the war, Hollings won the South Carolina House of Representatives as Lieutenant Governor and Governor after the war.

In 1962, he ran for the Senate but was defeated by incumbent Olin D. Johnston. Johnston died in 1965, and Hollings followed a special election to complete the remainder of Johnston's term.

Though the Republican Party grew to prominence in South Carolina after 1966, Hollings stayed popular and kept winning re-election, making him one of the longest-serving Senators in United States history.

In the 1984 presidential election, Hollings ran for the Democratic nomination but fell out of the race after the New Hampshire primary.

In 2004, he declined to run for re-election, and Republican Jim DeMint took his place.

Early life

Hollings was born in Charleston, South Carolina, the son of Wilhelmine Dorothea Meyer (1888-1972) and Adolph Gevert Hollings, Sr. (1882-1940). He was of German descent. Hollings were raised in the Hampton Park Terrace neighborhood from age 10 to college.

Education and personal life

In 1942, Hollings obtained a Bachelor of Arts degree from The Citadel. He obtained an LL.B. After 21 months at the University of South Carolina, he founded a law practice in Charleston in 1947. Hollings was a member of the Pi Kappa Phi fraternity.

He was married to Rita Liddy "Peatsy" Hollings from August 21, 1971, until her death in October 2012. With Martha Patricia Salley Hollings, he married on March 30, 1946, he had four children (Michael, Helen, Patricia Salley, and Ernest III). He was a Lutheran. In addition, Fritz and Patricia's two sons were also deceased.

He served as an officer in the US Army's 353rd and 457th Artillery units from 1942 to 1945 during World War II, and was given the Bronze Star for his outstanding service in direct support of combat operations from December 13, 1944, to May 1, 1945, France and Germany. He received the European-African-Middle Campaign Medal for his participation in the Tunisia, Southern France, Rome-Arno, and Central Europe Campaigns.


Ernest Hollings Career

Political career

From 1949 to 1954, he served three terms in the South Carolina House of Representatives. Hollings' coworkers elected him Speaker Pro Tempore in 1951 and 1953, after only one term. In 1954, he was first elected Lieutenant Governor of South Carolina and Governor in 1958 at the age of 36.

Hollings, the governor of South Carolina, from January 20, 1959, to January 15, 1963, was working to improve the state's educational system, contributing to the state's education system, which provided more industry and job opportunities. The establishment of the state's technological education system and its educational television network were among the state's political initiatives during his tenure in office. He also called for and received significant raises in teachers' salaries, bringing them closer to the regional average. "Today, in our modern society, education is the cornerstone on which economic growth must be built, and prosperity is guaranteed."

The Confederate battle flag was flown above the South Carolina state house under the US and state flags during Hollings' tenure as governor. During the centennial commemoration of the Civil War centennial, the battle flag was lowered over the dome in 1962 by a joint resolution of the state legislature. The agreement was unable to specify a time for its removal. In 2000, the state legislature voted to change the flag from above the state house to a Confederate soldier's monument in front of the building, where it remained until 2015 when Republican governor Nikki Haley ordered it to be removed following the murders of nine black churchgoers by a Confederate sympathizer in the state earlier this year.

"As we meet, South Carolina is running out of courts," Hollings, the first black student admitted to Clemson University, declared that instead of a government of laws rather than a government of men." vrage: This should be done with respect. It should be done with legislation and order."

The last executions in South Carolina were oversaw by the homings before the Supreme Court's decision in Furman vs. Georgia, which temporarily banned capital punishment. Eight prisoners were brought to death by electric chair during his term. Douglas Thorne, a rapist, was the last incarnation of Douglas Thorne on April 20, 1962.

In 1962, he ran for the Democratic nomination for a seat in the Senate but lost to incumbent Olin D. Johnston.

Johnston died onfürria in 1965. Donald S. Russell, Hollings' replacement as governor, resigned in order to allow his appointment to the Senate seat. In the summer of 1966, Hollings defeated Russell in the Democratic primary for the remaining two years of the term. He barely won the special election against the Democrat-turned-Republican Marshall Parker on November 8, 1966, and was sworn in just seconds later. He inherited seniority over other newly elected senators in the United States, but he would have to wait until January 1967 to take the oath of office. He was one of eleven senators who voted against Thurgood Marshall's appointment to become the first black justice on the Supreme Court in seine 1967. Following Hollings' victory over Marshall Parker in his first full term in the first year, he secured his Senate seat for his first full term, but by a much larger margin in this case.

He served alongside Republican Strom Thurmond for thirty-six years (until January 2003), making them the longest-serving Senate pair in the United States' history. Despite the fact that Hollings was the longest-serving junior senator, he also made him the longest-serving senator, despite the fact that he had more seniority than just a handful of his colleagues. Despite their often partisan convictions, Thurmond and Hollings had a positive working relationship and often collaborated on legislation and programs to benefit South Carolina. South Carolina's combined seniority gave them a leg up on national politics well beyond its relatively small population. Thurmond, Robert Byrd, Ted Kennedy, Daniel Inouye, Carl Hayden, John Stennis, Joseph Inouye, John Stennis, Pat Leahy, Orrin Hatch, Chuck Grassley, and Thad Cochran served in the Senate longer than did Hollings.

Hollings wrote The Case Against Hunger: A Call for a National Policy in 1970, honoring the Reverend I.D. Thank you to both newman and Sister Mary Anthony for opening his eyes to the hunger caused by hunger and assisting him in recognizing that he must do something about it. During the year's long career as he toured poverty-stricken areas of South Carolina, he was often referred to as his "Hunger Tours." He was accused of attracting unwanted attention to South Carolina, while other states, both northern and southern, were also suffering from extreme poverty. Hollings knew South Carolina was not alone in its struggle, and hoped that if any politician was going to look into hunger in South Carolina, it would certainly be a South Carolinian. "I don't want Romney and Kennedy coming here to look at my slums," he said after a tour of an East Charleston slum. As a matter of fact, I suspect I will venture into Boston's slums. Hollings was also accused of "scheming for the Negro vote" as a result of his campaigns. On his tours, Hollings, who had seen a lot of white hunger, poverty, and slums, replied, "You don't make political arguments on hunger." The poor aren't eligible to vote and will not vote," says the author. Hollings testified before testifying before the Senate Select Committee on Hunger and Human Needs in February 1969, but in February 1969, he testified as to what he had seen on his fact-finding tours. "Senators, members of the press corps, and tourists packed in the hearing room waited and listened in surprise as Hollings intricately poignant scenes of human suffering in his state," The News and Courier in Charleston (now The Courier) announced. Senator George McGovern announced that free food stamps would be distributed in South Carolina as part of a national pilot program for feeding the hungry, with Hollings recommending that free food stamps be distributed to the most needy.

Hollings and his first wife separated in 1970 and divorced in 1971. Their children lived with their mother, and Hollings never discussed the reason for the divorce. Rita Liddy "Peatsy" Hollings, who was 13 years old at the time, married Rita Liddy "Peatsy" Hollings (born 1935). In 1967, she took over his administrative work. It was her first and second marriage. They were married for 41 years before her death in 2012.

Hollings, together with fellow senators Kennedy and Henry M. Jackson, in the 1970s, protested President Gerald Ford's demand that Congress eliminate Richard Nixon's price controls on domestic oil, which had helped to fuel the gasoline lines during the 1973 Oil Crisis. Hollings predicted that ending the price controls (which was eventually done in 1981) would be a "catastrophe" that would cause "economic chaos."

Hollings, a New York senator, asked if he would endorse the anti-busting bill because it was based on New York law in February 1970.

Hollings said in September 1970, during a speech at the University of Georgia in Athens, that the US could not afford such "leadership by political bamboozle," asking that Americans to ignore the voices of discord and embrace for "meaningful changes" in society. President Nixon had led the US down a "clamorous road of drift and division," Hollings said, criticizing Vice President Spiro Agnew's "ranting rhetoric." Hollings attributed the main reason for the disunity in the United States primarily to special interest groups and "impatient minority blocs" who had yelled "no negotiable demands." Former President Johnson and President Nixon were blamed for "attacking the politics of the situation rather than the actual problems."

In February 1971, Hollings introduced Ted Kennedy in Charleston, South Carolina, ahead of his remarks calling for an end to the Vietnam War. Hollings said Kennedy had obtained his advice on how to answer reporters' concerns about a potential presidential bid and that his trip might have sparked rumors about a campaign, even though he denied it.

Hollings declared his displeasure with Earl Butz' nomination for US Secretary of Agriculture in November 1971.

As the Nixon administration sought to establish an agenda of delaying recognition until "the United States enjoys commensurate diplomatic service to the United States," Hollings and Republican William Saxbe sponsored a bill endowing early United States recognition of Bangladesh.

Hollings was one of five Democrats to vote against F. Ray Marshall's nomination as the United States Secretary of Labor in 1977.

In early 1979, US Secretary of State Cyrus Vance requested permission from a Senate Appropriations subcommittee to move $2 million in funds for the American Embassy to Taiwan's new unofficial American Institute. At the time when Vance's appearance before the subcommittee and Hollings later sent a letter to Vance, declining the request. Hollings was one of four members of the committee to condemn Vance's appeal during the latter's appearance before the subcommittee and Hollings' resignation. In the case that funds not being transferred to the American Institute before the American Embassy in Taiwan ceased operations by March 1, Hollings said that "a smooth transition to unofficial relations could be jeopardized." Hollings' resistance was unexpected considering that most demands were accepted and state department officials publicly expressed their desire for Hollings and his colleagues to abandon their resistance in the face of Taiwan's reluctant agreement to establish a "nongovernmental body in137" that would act as the counterpart to the American Institute in Taipei.

In 1979, Hollings reacted to legislation that would allow new ethnic Chinese refugees in the midst of growing anxiety about Vietnamese government's reforms.

Hollings, the British-Soviet Union nuclear treaty, said in August 1979, he opposed the treaty until it was amended with a decrease in Soviet military power. If carried out, his plan is said to have ignited Russian dis outdoors of the treaty. Hollings also failed to convince the Senate Budget Committee to increase $2.6 billion for a recommendation for military spending that would be included in Congress' second concurrent resolution on the budget.

In the 1984 presidential election, Hollings unsuccessfully sought the Democratic nomination for President of the United States. Hollings' wit and experience, as well as his call for a budget freeze, earned him some praise, but his remarkably conservative record alienated liberal Democrats, and he was never particularly noticed in a market dominated by Walter Mondale, John Glenn, and Gary Hart. Hollings dropped out two days after losing badly in the New Hampshire Primary and then endorsed Hart a week later. His disdain for his opponents was evident at times. He referred to Mondale as a "lapdog" and former astronaut Glenn as a "Sky King" who was "confused in his capsule."

Hollings introduced legislation on March 24, 1981, guaranteeing that military draft with limited deferments and exemptions, as well as stipulating that men aged 18 to 22 years old will have to complete nine months of active service for basic education that may have gone beyond reserve service. According to Hollings' plan, deferred deferments were given to people on active service, in the reserves, or in the Advanced Reserve Officers Training Corps' report; surviving sons or brothers of those killed in combat; physicians and others in vital health occupations; and judges of elected and incumbent officials. Hollings said that recruiting for the armed forces fell short of expectations by 23,000 people in 1979, and that the reform involving women "should be discussed across the board" due to the subject being debated both the public and the courts.

Hollings apologised to fellow Democrat Howard Metzenbaum after Hollings referred to him as the "senator from B'nai B'rith" on the floor. Metzenbaum, a Jew, brought a point of personal wealth to the forefront, but Hollings' remarks were stricken from the record.

In March 1985, the Senate Budget Committee approved a bill by freezing Social Security costs of living increases, not encouraging any increase above inflation in fiscal year 1986, and bestowing three percent increases in the ensuing two years, Hollings says.

The Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation amended a bill that reauthorizes the Federal Communications Commission from selling channels with commercial stations on May 1, 1985, according to Hollings, who later stated that the vote was "a sad abandonment by Congress of its long-serving public interest in broadcasting."

Hollings and Republicans, Phil Gramm and Warren Rudman, proposed an amendment in October 1985 to establish a spending ceiling that would decline to zero by 1991, which was attached to a bill that increased the debt ceiling of the federal government by more than $250 billion. The amendment was approved by a vote of 75 to 24, and it was described as a potential precursor to a balanced budget in five years without a tax increase by Treasury Secretary James Baker's secretary.

Hollings endorsed Jesse Jackson during the 1988 presidential primaries.

Hollings announced from his Washington office in October 1989 that he would request the Federal Emergency Management Agency investigate Hurricane Hugo's victims. Hollings charged FEMA with "stonewalling, trembling, and filling out forms" and urged the federal government to be more involved in helping areas impacted by Hurricane Hugo.

Holling leur planned the compiling of the Senate Budget Committee to recommend a reduction in Social Security taxes in April 1990, an attempt that was initially introduced at the end of the previous year by fellow Democratic senator Daniel Patrick Moynihan as a way to lobby Congress about what he considered a significant issue in the administration of the Social Security trust funds. Hollings needed a revenue estimate that represented the $36 billion tax cut that was supposed to go into operation on January 1 and revealed that he would ask his colleagues on the budget committee to eliminate the trust funds from the budget deficit analysis and vote on the 1991 budget, which included a $300 billion deficit. In comparison to a ten percent oil import duty and a rise in the top income tax rate to thirty-three percent among wealthy taxpayers, Hollings' proposal included a five percent value-added tax on véhicules and services, as well as an increase in the top income tax rate to thirty-three percent. Hollings could be defeated in committee with parliamentary tactics that would have resulted in the postponement of a straight up-or-down vote on the Social Security tax cut. "They might try to stop me," Hollings said. However, we will find a bill from God to reduce Social Security taxes. It will be a vote.

Hollings joined the majority of Democrats in January 1991 in rejecting a bill authorizing war against Iraq.

Hollings told reporters in 1993 that he attended international summits because "everybody likes to go to Geneva." I used to do it for the Law of the Sea conferences, and you'd find the potentates from Africa, rather than eating together, they'd come up and have a hearty square meal in Geneva." When responding to Yoshio Sakurauchi's argument that Americans are lazy and illiterate, Hollings had caused controversies. "You should draw a mushroom cloud and stick it under it," Hollings said. 'Made in America by lazy and illiterate Americans and tested in Japan."

Hollings in South Carolina remained extremely popular over the years, even as the state became more welcoming to Republicans at the national level. He never dropped below 60% of the vote in his first three attempts for a full term. However, he ran an unexpectedly close contest against former Congressman Tommy Hartnett in 1992, which was otherwise a good year for Democrats nationally. Hartnett served in Congress from 1981 to 1987, making him Hollings' congressman. His popularity in the Lowcountry, which is traditionally a swing state, led him to the defeat of Hollings to only 5 percent of the vote.

Hollings defeated Republican congressman Bob Inglis in his last Senate election in 1998. One of the most controversial parts of the campaign was a newspaper interview in which Hollings referred to Inglis as a "goddamn skunk." Hollings was re-elected 52%–45%.

Hollings introduced the controversial Universal National Service Act of 2006, which would require both male and female 18-26 (with some exceptions) to complete a year of military service.

Hollings discovered that no Democrat would run for governor of South Carolina's new political climate by 2003, not even as established an incumbent as himself. He declared on August 4, 2003, that he did not run for re-election in November 2004. Jim DeMint, a Republican, succeeded him.

Hollings was moderately partisan in his later years but he was in favour of several civil rights legislation. In 1982, he voted for the Reauthorization of the Voting Rights Act. However, in 1967, he was one of eleven senators who voted against the confirmation of Thurgood Marshall, the first black Supreme Court justice. Later, the Hollings voted in favour of Robert Bork's failed nomination and also for the successful nomination of Clarence Thomas.

He was generally conservative on fiscal matters and was one of the primary sponsors of the Gramm-Rudman-Hollings Act, which sought to place limits on government spending.

The only two Democrats senators to vote against the Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993 were Hollings and Howell Heflin of Alabama.

Hollings, as a senator, supported legislation in the interests of the established media industry (such as the proposed "Consumer Broadband and Digital Television Promotion Acts." Since being named after him, his hard-line assistance with various client-side computer restrictions such as DRM and Trusted Computing led to the Fritz chip (Trusted Platform Module, a microchip that enforces such limitations). Hollings introduced the SSSCA, a draft of the later CBDTPA, which would have required "manufacturers of all electronic products and applications" to include government approved copy protection technology in their products. The Online Personal Privacy Act was also sponsored by Hollings. Hollings earned more than $300,000 from the entertainment industry between 1997 and 2002, according to OpenSecrets.

Hollings was known as "Senator from Disney" for his advocacy for the entertainment industry, as well as lobbying for industry organizations such as the RIAA and MPAA.